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Calculations on an inductor and resistor in series.

An inductor causes a 90 degrees phase shift. After reading the previous section, it's clear that the complex impedance can be written as:

So: |ZR+L| = √(R2+XL2) and arg(ZR+L) = arctan(XL/R).

As an example, we'll take a 10k resistor in series with a 15.9k inductor. The total (complex) impedance is 10k + 15.9kj. The absolute value is √(10k2 + 15.9k2) = 18.78k. The phase shift in the current flow will be arctan(15.9k/10k) = 57.8 degrees.